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AYAK est un collectif de chercheur.e.s francophones à Istanbul basé sur l’entraide et la pluridisciplinarité initié sur la volonté de pouvoir échanger scientifiquement sans frontières institutionnelles. Cette journée d’étude constitue un temps d’échanges sur les difficultés rencontrées sur le terrain. Au terme de réflexions collectives, nous chercherons à développer des stratégies, alternatives et méthodes pour palier à ces difficultés.
Webinaire - How millet became the nation. A conceptual history of the word millet in the longue durée of ottoman history
How Millet became the Nation. A conceptual History of the Word Millet in the Longue durée of Ottoman History
Nikos Sigalas (CETOBAC)
This conference aims at outlining the history of the word millet (Arabic millah) in Turkish-Ottoman texts from the 15th century up to the beginning of the 20th.
During the early Ottoman centuries, two distinct uses of “millet” correspond to two independent linguistic registers. These registers are the learned (‘ulamā) tradition; and the Turkish vernacular chronicles. In the learned tradition, the meaning of “millet” draws on medieval Arabic lexicography and qur’anic interpretation and is therefore systematically associated with the notions of dīn and šarīʿah. On the contrary, in Turkish vernacular chronicles and treaties – which mostly rely on Persian and Turco-Mongolian literate models – “millet” constitutes a synonym for “Λαός” and “populous” in Medieval Greek and Latin, i.e. a people. Besides, in Turkish vernacular sources, “millet” is often a synonym with “ṭā’ife”. However “millet” belongs to a power legitimacy vocabulary, whereas “ṭā’ife” does not.
A third linguistic register, particularly significant for the uses of “millet”, and more generally for the power legitimacy vocabulary, were the titles of the sultanate’s officials (elḳāb). Alongside with the standardization of power rituals in the palace – including foreign ambassadors’ receptions – the extensive titles of ottoman officials became very important for the imperial rhetoric and were increasingly used by the ottoman chronicles and books of counsels. Τhe uses of “millet” in the elḳāb rely on the learned tradition. But, due to their formulaic character, the original meaning of these elḳāb becomes all the more obscure and is open to reinterpretation.
“Millet” undergoes a major semantic shift in the turn of the 18th century, when the Ottoman sultanate practically integrates the Westphalian diplomatic system. From then on “millet” becomes occasionally a synonym for the modern English word nation and its translations in western European languages. This new meaning evolves together with an emerging semantic register: modern diplomacy, which embodies the integration of the Ottoman Empire into an “inter-national” (beyn-el-milel) world. The uses of “millet” as a synonym of “nation” become more frequent during the last quarter of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries.
During the 19th century, some Ottoman literati, who aimed to create a uniform Ottoman-Turkish national language, brought together the different premodern linguistic registers. Owing to this attempt, and despite some lexicographers’ resistance, the transformation of “millet” into “nation” became a fait accompli.
In light of such findings, we finally deal with the question of the so-called “millet system”. Starting from a close reading of the ottoman reform edict of 1856 (ıṣlāḥāt fermānı) and of a number of related diplomatic and administrative documents, I argue that the “millet system theory” leads to a complete misunderstanding of both the ottoman power concepts and the political practices. In fact, the 1856 reform edit introduces a form of governance based on the recognition of the “non-Muslim cemā‘ats” (and not “millets”). Rather than a medieval remnant, this was a calculated reaction to foreign intervention and nationalism. Nonetheless, these “cemā‘ats” were regularly called millets, i.e. nations, in most of the non-administrative sources. Therefore, the governance introduced by the ıṣlāḥāt fermānı reinforced the preexisting tendency to ascribe national attributes to confessional communities, with far-reaching consequences for the Balkan and Middle-eastern nationalisms.
Intervention en anglais
Date de l'événement: 09/11/2020 à 18h
Mustafa Aydın (Kadir Has University) and Dimitrios Triantaphyllou (Kadir Has University)
The relations between Greece and Turkey find themselves in a state of increased tensions for most of 2020 with no end in sight regarding their alleviation. The two nations sharing a common geography, a flank state mentality, and complex historical relations, have been facing the challenge of addressing their outstanding differences at a time when the regional and global order is undergoing systemic change. The delicate status quo that has shaped the relations between the two countries since 1999, with the beginning of a rapprochement process predicated on the jumpstarting of Turkey’s accession process to the European Union, been challenged in recent years due to a number of reasons. Some of these include the stalling of Turkey’s EU bid, the ownership of possible fossil fuels located in disputed waters, the continued inability to resolve the Cyprus governance context, and the ongoing structural administrative changes in Turkey accompanied by a more coercive foreign policy approach. The objective is a peaceful resolution of their differences where the option of a status quo ante situation is not sustainable anymore while a further militarization of the crisis both between Turkey and Greece and in Cyprus could potentially lead to an armed conflict. The path chosen by both countries to resolve their differences could have fundamental implications for Turkey’s foreign policy in terms of how closely it remains aligned with or how it irrevocably disengages from that of its European and western partners.
Mustafa Aydın is a Professor of International Relations at Kadir Has University (Istanbul), and the President of International Relations Council of Turkey. Previously, he worked at Ankara University (1994-2005) and Economy and Technology University (2005-2009), and was the Rector of Kadir Has University between 2010 and 2018. Professor Aydın was a guest researcher and/or lecturer at Michigan (1998), Harvard (2002, Fulbright fellow), and Athens (2003, Onassis Fellow) universities, as well as at Richardson Institute for Peace Studies (1999, Unesco Fellow) and the EU Institute for Security Studies (2003). He is a member of the International Studies Association (ISA), Turkish Atlantic Council, Turkish Political Sciences Association, European Leadership Network, Greek-Turkish Forum, and European Academy of Art and Sciences. Prof. Aydın’s areas of interest include international politics, foreign policy analysis, security issues related to Central Asia, Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the Middle East, as well as Turkish foreign and security policies. Some of his works are International Security Today; Understanding Change and Debating Security (with K. Ifantis, 2006); Turkish Foreign and Security Policy (2006); Turkish Foreign Policy; Old Problems, New Parameters (2010); and Non-Traditional Security Threats and Regional Cooperation in the Southern Caucasus (2011).
Dimitrios Triantaphyllou is Professor of International Relations and Director of the Center for International and European Studies (CIES) at Kadir Has University in Istanbul. He holds a BA in Political Science and History from the University of California, Berkeley, and an MA and Ph.D. in International Relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He has previously served in various capacities in a number of research and academic institutions such as the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP), Athens; the EU Institute for Security Studies, Paris; the Hellenic Observatory at the London School of Economics; the University of the Aegean, Rhodes; and the International Center for Black Sea Studies (ICBSS). Athens. He also served as an advisor at the Hellenic Ministry for Foreign Affairs. He is Associate Editor of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies (SSCI indexed); a member of the Greek-Turkish Forum; co-convener of the Commission on the Black Sea; a member of the Advisory Boards of the Black Sea Trust for Regional Cooperation, the International Institute for Peace, Vienna; the Black Sea NGO Forum, and the Corporate Social Responsibility Association of Turkey. His more recent applied and research interests include Greek-Turkish Relations, Black Sea Security and Politics; and EU foreign and neighborhood policies. He is also actively engaged in a number of non-formal education initiatives promoting civic engagement and youth empowerment.
Interventions en anglaisDate de l'événement: 11/11/2020 à 18h30
On the Other Shore: The Things of a Sufi Saint in Istanbul
Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi (1541-1628), the “second Pir” (pir-i sani) of the Celvetiyye Sufi-order, is a famous Sufi saint in Istanbul. His mausoleum (türbe) on the slope of a hill in Üsküdar has not ceased to be a vital focus of pilgrimage up to the present. Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi is known as one of the four protectors of the Bosporus, and according to local lore, seafarers between the opposite shores of Sultanahmet and Üsküdar cling to the “Hüdayi-way” (Hüdayi yolu), on which the saint is remembered to have crossed the waters on a stormy day.
Until the 1980s, a large collection of personal belongings (emanetler) of the saint and his followers such as several mantles (hırka), ritual headgear (tac-ı şerif), shoes, a stick (asa), ritual paraphernalia, and many contact relics such as pieces of the cover (kısve) of the Kaaba or small pieces of muslin called destimal used to be kept in the türbe. In the past decades, however, this extraordinarily rich collection of the mausoleum was gradually transferred to the archive of the State Directorate of Mausoleums and Museums (Türbeler Müze Müdürlügü) in Sultanahmet. While many historical inventories of Istanbul’s Sufi mausoleums dispersed and fell prey to looting after the closure of the Sufi shrines in 1925, among the locals of Üsküdar it is considered as one of the miracles of the saint that “not even a handkerchief” of the collection of his türbe got lost. Yet, presently, this rare collection is inaccessible to the public.
Drawing on my fieldwork at the türbe of Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi in Üsküdar and on my archival research, I wish to offer a close look at this inventory of a famous Istanbul Sufi türbe and to shed light on the ways and stories of some of its items after 1925. An inquiry into the “biographies” of the belongings of the shrine of Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi invites us to pay attention to the vitality of portable and textile things in the aesthetics and materiality of Sufi shrines and to some local practices of Sufism in Istanbul past and present.
Esther Voswinckel Filiz M.A. is a fellow at the German Orient-Institut Istanbul in the research field “History of Religions of Anatolia”. She studied Cultural Anthropology and Religious Studies. Her Ph.D. thesis with the title Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi in Istanbul - Biography of a Place (Ruhr-Universität Bochum) was completed in June 2020. She conducted long-time ethnographic fieldwork at the mausoleum of Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi in Üsküdar.
Intervention en anglais
Date de l'événement: 16/11/2020 à 18h
Live Al Jazeera (B. Balcı), "Le Haut-Karabakh Que se passe-t-il entre l’Arménie et l’Azerbaïdjan ?" AJ+, 20 octobre 2020. https://www.facebook.com/ajplusfrancais/videos/668178750567911/
M. Çelikpala, S. Özel, "Looking at the current Turkish foreign policy" IFEA, 14 octobre 2020. https://www.facebook.com/IFEA.Istanbul/videos/3575570622495301
Entretien avec Franck Mermier sur la situation au Yémen dans l'émission Rencontre spéciale, Belqees TV (Istanbul), 16 octobre 2020 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z_ZNXh78N6s
Franck Mermier a participé au Salon politique sur le thème "Islam et laïcité en France" avec Sari Hanafi et Ratib Shabo, émission de Syria TV (Istanbul), 18 octobre 2020 :
ماكرون.. فهم إشكالي للإسلام والعلمانية | الصالون السياسي
Adnan Çelik & Birgül Kutan, Programme Meclislerin Sözü (La parole des assemblées), "Müşterek Bir Toplumsal Örgütlenme Zemini Olarak HDK" ("HDK comme une base d'organisation commune")
Taybuğa Aybars Mamalı ”Geç Osmanlı İstanbul'unda Tiyatrolar ve Denetim" ("Le théâtre et le contrôle de la censure à Istanbul durant la période ottomane tardive”), Toplumsal Tarih Dergisi 323, Novembre 2020, pp. 16-22
"Les Umifre et les Ecoles françaises à l’étranger s’associent pour promouvoir l’archéologie en Méditerranée orientale" Cahier des UMIFRE 6, p. 5. https://www.umifre.fr/docs/Cahier-Umifre-6-BAT-web-HDEF.pdf
IFEA remercie chaleureusement la fondation IPLI et son président Timothy RENO pour leur généreuse contribution au projet européen « Documenter et diffuser le patrimoine néolithique d’Anatolie, pont culturel vers l’Europe »
Après l'inauguration de son site Internet annoncée voici quelques semaines, le projet Moving Stones vous invite à découvrir l'envers du décor : qui sont les acteurs du projet, les lieux où sont faites les découvertes et ceux où elles sont étudiées, conservées et exposées.
Une seule adresse pour cela, la chaîne YouTube Moving Stones. Abonnez-vous pour être au courant des dernières nouveautés en attendant la sortie du documentaire.